Правила косвенной речи в английском языке

Сегодня мы разберем правила косвенной речи (Reported Speech) в английском языке.

Общие правила косвенной речи в английском языке

Косвенная речь – это пересказ своими словами того, что кто-то сказал или спросил.

Прямая речь передает слова в неизменном виде (в кавычках):

  • She said: “I have been to Mexico twice”.

В косвенной речи слова говорящего изменяются:

  • She said (that) she had been to Mexico twice.

По правилам образования косвенной речи I поменялось на she, have been – на had been. В разговорной речи мы часто опускаем that.

Основное правило косвенной речи – это смещение времен, то есть present меняется на past, will – на would, past simple – на past perfect.

Прямая речь Косвенная речь
Am / is Was
Are Were
Do / does Did
Have / has Had
Study / work / make / come и т.д. Studied / worked / made / came и т.д.
Will Would
Can Could

Say и tell – самые распространенные глаголы при передаче косвенной речи. Изучите примеры иcпользования tell и say:

  • He told me that he was hungry. (tell + someone + that …)
  • He said that he was hungry. (say + that …)

или

  • He said to me that he was hungry. (say + to someone + that…)
Прямая речь Косвенная речь
 Утверждение Cat: “The flight was delayed”. Cat said (that) he flight had been delayed.
Вопрос Paul: “Are you free on Tuesday?”

 

Jenny: “What are you working on?”

Paul asked me if I was free on Tuesday.

Jenny asked me what I was working on.

Просьба или приказ Mila: “Please be on time”.

Dan: “Don’t forget your passport”.

Mila asked me to be on time.

Dan told me not to forget my passport.

Смена времен в косвенной речи

Ниже мы рассмотрим как меняются времена и модальные глаголы при передаче из прямой речи в косвенную.

Таблица согласования времен в косвенной речи в английском языке

Прямая речь Косвенная речь
Present Simple
He said: “I work in a school”.
Past Simple
He said (that) he worked in a school.
Present Continuous
He said: “I’m going shopping”.
Past Continuous
He said (that) he was going shopping.
Present Perfect
He said: “I’ve already had lunch”.
Past Perfect
He said (that) he had already had lunch.
Past Simple
He said: “Linda was late for the class”.
Past Simple or Past Perfect
He said (that) Linda was late for the class. / He said (that) Linda had been late for the class.
Past Continuous
He said: “I was listening to music”.
Past Perfect Continuous
He said (that) he had been listening to music.
Past Perfect
He said: “I had done that before”.
Past Perfect
He said (that) he had done that before.
Will

He said: “I’ll go there soon”.

Would

He said (that) he would go there soon.

Am/is/are going to

He said: “I’m going to leave”.

Was /were going to

He said (that) he was going to leave.

Can

He said: “I can fix the computer”.

Could

He said (that) he could fix the computer.

Must

He said: “The cake must be easy do make”. (предположение)

He said: “I must go”. (обязательство)

Must or had to

He said (that) cake must be easy do make. (предположение)

He said (that) he had to go. (обязательство)

May

He said: “It may snow in the afternoon”. (вероятность)

He said: “You may come in”. (разрешение)

Might or could

He said (that) it might snow in the afternoon. (возможность)

He said (that) I could come in. (разрешение)

Could

He said: “I couldn’t tell the truth”.

Could

He said (that) he couldn’t tell the truth.

Should

He said: “I should exercise more”.

Should

He said (that) he should exercise more.

Might

He said: “I might be late for the class”.

Might

He said (that) he might be late for the class.

Would

He said: “I would like a glass of juice”.

Would

He said (that) he would like a glass of juice.

Ought to

He said: “You ought to hand in the papers”.

Ought to

He said to us (that) we ought to hand in the papers.

Used to

He said: “I used to play the guitar”.

Used to

He said (that) he used to play the guitar.

Вопросы в косвенной речи

Общие вопросы

При передаче общих вопросов из прямой речи в косвенную сохраняется смещение времен, добавляется слово if / whether (if употребляется чаще). При этом порядок слов меняется на прямой (как в утвердительном предложении), а вспомогательные глаголы do / does / did не используются.

Прямая речь                            Fred asked: “Is the lesson cancelled?”

Косвенная речь                       Fred asked if the lesson was cancelled.

Прямая речь                            Sue asked: “Do you play any musical instruments?”

Косвенная речь                      Sue asked if I played any musical instruments.

Специальные вопросы

Специальные вопросы в косвенной речи присоединяются к главному (например, ‘he asked’) с помощью вопросительных слов (what, where, when, who и т.д.). Порядок слов  меняется на прямой (подлежащее + глагол)

Прямая речь                            Hanna: “Where is my bag?”

Косвенная речь                       Hanna asked where her bag was.

Прямая речь                            Jill: “Where have you been?”

Косвенная речь                       Jill asked me where I had been.

В вопросах в подлежащему в косвенной речи порядок слов не меняется.

Прямая речь                            Kate: “Who made that cake?”

Косвенная речь                       Kate asked who made that cake.

или

Kate asked who had made that cake.

Просьбы и приказы в косвенной речи

Приказы и просьбы в косвенной речи присоединяются с помощью инфинитива с to, а в отрицательной форме – not to + инфинитив 

Прямая речь                            Bernard: “Could you wait here, please”.

Косвенная речь                       Bernard asked us to wait there.

Прямая речь                            Teacher: Don’t make noise!

Косвенная речь                       Teacher told us not to make noise.

Исключения из правил

  1. Смещения времен не происходит в косвенной речи, когда говорится об общеизвестном факте:
  • The professor said that the earth is round.
  • She said that the universe is infinite.
  1. Если вводный глагол в настоящем или будущем времени, то в придаточном предложении глагол может быть в любом времени по смыслу:
  • He always says that he works hard. (вводный глагол says в настоящем времени)
  • The teacher has just said that next week we’ll have an exam. (has said – глагол в Present Perfect)
  1. Если ситуация до сих пор не изменилась, то не обязательно менять время глагола на прошедшее:

Прямая речь                            Kate said: “Our house is very large”.

Косвенная речь                      Kate said (that) their house is very large. (ситуация не изменилась, их дом до сих пор большой)

или

Kate said (that) their house was very large.

Маркеры времени в косвенной речи

Кроме изменения времен в косвенной речи также меняются слова, обозначающие время:

Прямая речь                            Susan said: “I’ll visit Andrew tomorrow”.

Косвенная речь                      Susan said (that) she would visit Andrew the next day.

Прямая речь Косвенная речь
tonight (сегодня вечером) that night (тем вечером)
now (сейчас) then (тогда)
today (сегодня) that day (в тот день)
tomorrow (завтра) the next day / the following day (на следующий день)
the day after tomorrow (послезавтра) two days later (через два дня, два дня спустя)
yesterday (вчера) the day before / the previous day (накануне)
the day before yesterday (позавчера) two days before (за два дня до этого, двумя днями раньше)
ago (тому назад) before (раньше)
next week/month/year (в следующем  ….) the following week/month/year (в следующем …)
last week/month/year (в прошлом  ….) the previous week/month/year (в предыдущем …)

Что еще меняется:

here (здесь) there (там)
this (этот) that (тот, этот)
these (эти) those (те, эти)

Глаголы для передачи косвенной речи

Глагол + that

agree – соглашаться She agreed that the film wasn’t that good.
state – заявлять, утверждать He stated that he had received good medical treatment.
note – упоминать, отмечать The secretary noted that the meeting would start on time.
explain – объяснять The officer explained that the rules had changed the week before.
mention – упоминать Maria mentioned that she had seen Peter at school the day before.
claim – заявлять, утверждать He claimed that he hadn’t taken anybody’s bags.
imply – выражать неявно, иметь в виду She implied that she was happy to see me.
assert – утверждать, заявлять The minister asserted that the contract was completed in 1990.
report – сообщать, давать отчет The presenter reported that the plane had landed safely.

Глагол + to-инфинитив

refuse – отказываться They refused to show their documents.
decide – решать The boss decided to give Mark a promotion.
promise – обещать We promised not to be late again.
demand – требовать The teacher demanded everybody to take their seats.
agree – соглашаться We agreed to stay a few more days.
threaten – угрожать She threatened to tell everything to the police.
plead with – умолять They pleaded with the man to release the hostage.

Глагол + somebody + (not) to-инфинитив

remind – напоминать She reminded me to keep the door open.
ask – просить They asked us to dance.
beg – умолять He begged the man not to tell anybody.
warn – предупреждать The police warned them not to leave the house.
order – приказывать They ordered everyone to leave the building.
encourage – ободрять, поддерживать He encouraged her to apply for a job.
persuade – убеждать We persuaded them to join our trip.
advise – советовать The doctor advised me to cut down on sugar.
urge – побуждать, призывать He urged Parties to respond rapidly.

Глагол + герундий (V-ing)

deny – отказываться They denied taking the money.
suggest – предлагать I suggested going to Paris for the weekend.
recommend – рекомендовать He recommended using another application.
propose – предлагать I propose scheduling the next meeting.
admit – признавать He admitted cheating on the exam.

Глагол + предлог + герундий (V-ing)

blame smbd for – винить кого-то за They blamed me for missing the plane.
accuse smbd of – обвинять кого-то за She accused her neighbor of stealing the TV.
insist on – настаивать на He insisted on paying for the meal.
apologise for – извиняться за He apologised for breaking the vase.
complain about – жаловаться на He complained about not having hot water in the room.
forbid smbd from – запрещать кому-то Her husband forbade her from working during their marriage.
think about – думать о She is thinking about studying Law.

Давайте проверим, как хорошо вы усвоили правила косвенной речи.

Выберите 1 правильный ответ:

“I would be in London on Saturday”, she said.

She said that she __________________.

 
 
 

Sam said: ” She will be here next week”

Sam said that __________________.

 
 
 

Mary asked,” Where did your father live?”

Mary asked me ____________________.

 
 
 

“I’ll be using the car next Friday”, she said.

She said that ______________________.

 
 
 

Nancy: “You can’t eat here”. 

Nancy told her friend that __________________.

 
 
 

Benny: “Was your sister working yesterday morning?”

Benny asked me _____________________.

 
 
 

Lisa: “I must finish the project today”.

Lisa said that ___________________.

 
 
 

He asked:” Are we going to start work tomorrow?”

He asked ________________________.

 
 
 

We have been waiting for hours”, they complained.

They complained that _______________.

 
 
 

“Where do you live?”, she asked me.

She asked me _______________.

 
 
 

 

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