Согласование времен происходит в сложных предложениях, то есть состоящих из двух частей — главного предложения и придаточного (зависимого), и тесно связано с косвенной речью.
Основное правило согласования гласит:
Если главное предложение в настоящем времени, то время в придаточном не меняется. Например:
- I know that you study English. — Я знаю, что ты учишь английский.
Если главное предложение в прошедшем времени, то в придаточном происходит смещение времен “на шаг назад”. Например:
- I knew that you studied English. — Я знал, что ты учишь английский.
В таблице приведены правила согласования:
|Простое предложение||Сложное предложение с согласованием|
|Present Simple I like pizza.||Past Simple He knew (that) she liked pizza.|
|Present Continuous I’m sleeping.||Past Continuous He knew (that) she was sleeping.|
|Present Perfect I have traveled a lot.||Past Perfect He knew (that) she had traveled a lot.|
|Past Simple I got a job in 2018.||Past Perfect He knew (that) she had got a job in 2018.|
|Past Continuous I was reading all evening.||Past Perfect Continuous He knew (that) she had been reading all evening.|
|Will I will write to you later.||Would He knew (that) she would write to him later.|
При согласовании времен и в косвенной речи указатели времени меняются:
- Sally: I went swimming yesterday.
- Sally said (that) she had gone swimming the day before.
Упражнение 2. Предложения с Present Simple
He lives in London. — Он живет в Лондоне.
I thought (that) he lived in London. — Я думал, что он живет в Лондоне.
Упражнение 3. Предложения с Past Simple
Согласование с Past Simple не обязательно, если есть указание, когда произошло действие.
She left Moscow on Sunday.
He said that she left / had left Moscow on Sunday.
Упражнение 4. Предложения с Present Continuous
I‘m having breakfast.
She said she was having breakfast.
Больше уроков по теме:
Упражнение 5. Предложения с Present Perfect
I’ve been to Morocco twice.
He said he had been to Morocco twice.
Упражнение 6. Предложения с Will
I will come to Ben’s birthday party.
He said he would come to Ben’s party.
Упражнение 7. Модальные глаголы
При согласовании модальные глаголы меняются: Can → Could, Must → Must / Had to, Have to → Had to, May → Might
Не меняются: Should, Ought to, Might
Упражнение 8. Предложения на все времена
- today — that day
- yesterday — the day before
- tomorrow — the next/following day
- a year ago — a year before
- next weekend — the following weekend
- last week — the previous week
- these days — those days
- last month — the previous month
- now — then
- this evening — that evening
- I knew that she collected stamps.
- I knew that they went surfing every day.
- I didn’t know he was a doctor.
- I thought that they were volunteers.
- I heard he worked in a school.
- I didn’t know he had written/wrote many books in the past.
- She said that she had traveled/traveled around Europe in her 20s.
- I heard she bought/had bought a new car.
- They said they visited/had visited France in 2015.
- Kate said she had seen/saw Tom this morning.
- He said the kids were playing in the yard.
- I knew he was taking a day-off.
- I saw they were sunbathing.
- She said she was living in Greece.
- Ken said they were working together.
- Mary said she had seen that movie before.
- I knew she had been to England twice.
- He said he had passed the exam.
- Vicky mentioned that she had never met a celebrity.
- They told me that they hadn’t applied/had not applied for University yet.
- Harry said that he would write to me.
- Mom said that she would call me soon.
- Nancy said that they would meet on Red Square.
- Lucy said that she would invite all her friends.
- Bruce said that he would move to Japan.
- Jane said that she could do it for me.
- She added she might be late for her class.
- He said he had to work hard.
- Teacher told me (that) I should read every day.
- The doctor said that I had to take a pill every 3 hours.
- Danny said he would wait for me at the square.
- I didn’t know you had studied/studied Japanese at school.
- Hanna said she had read that book before.
- I thought that you liked cooking.
- I saw that the cat was sleeping on the sofa.